(Re)generate: (find-psne-intro) Source code: (find-eev "eev-intro.el" "find-psne-intro") More intros: (find-eev-quick-intro) (find-eval-intro) (find-eepitch-intro) This buffer is _temporary_ and _editable_. It is meant as both a tutorial and a sandbox. We mentioned briefly in (find-pdf-like-intro "2. Preparation") that there are two "natural" ways to store a local copy of a file from the internet... here we will discuss the second way, in which the conversion from URL to a local file name works like this: https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/c/Coetzee99.pdf -> $S/https/tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/c/Coetzee99.pdf
1. Local copies of files from the internetEmacs knows how to fetch files from the internet, but for most purposes it is better to use local copies. Suppose that the environment variable $S is set to ~/snarf/; then running this * (eepitch-shell) * (eepitch-kill) * (eepitch-shell) mkdir -p $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ cd $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ wget http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html echo 'http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html' >> ~/.psne.log # (find-fline "$S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html") # (find-eww "$S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html") creates a local copy of `emacs-paper.html' inside ~/snarf/http/ and appends the URL to the file ~/.psne.log. The two lines in comments are hyperlinks to the local copy; The `find-fline' opens it as a file in the obvious way, and `find-eww' opens it "as HTML", using a text-mode web browser called eww that runs entirely inside Emacs.
2. The old way: psneA long time ago eev used to include a shell function called `psne' that ran all that with a single command. This: psne http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html would run the `mkdir', the `cd', the `wget' and the `echo' above. If psne were just a shell script then it wouldn't be able to change the current directory for the calling shell, so it had to be defined as shell function instead of a script, and the user had to patch his ~/.bashrc (or ~/.zshrc, or whatever) to install the definition for psne and make it available. That was VERY clumsy. From now on we will use "psne" as a verb: to psne a URL means to download a local copy of it into the right place, change to its directory and save its name into the file "~/.psne.log".
3. The new way: `M-x brep'Try to run this: (find-psne-links "http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html") or, equivalently, put the point on the URL below and then run `M-x brep': http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html You will get a temporary buffer for psne-ing the URL above. It will contain a `mkdir', a `cd', a `wget' and an `echo', plus an eepitch block and some elisp hyperlinks, and it can be executed with `F8's. Moral of the story: the "new" way to download a local copy of a url is to put the point on it, then run `M-x brep', then execute the resulting e-script. This does not require any patching of rcfiles, as the shell-function version of `psne' used to do.
4. The environment variable $SIf when eev is loaded by Emacs the environment variable $S is unset, it will be set to a default value - namely, to the expansion of "$HOME/snarf". Processes started from Emacs, such as shells created with `eepitch-shell' or `find-sh', or external terminals created by sexps like (find-bgprocess "xterm") (find-bgprocess "gnome-terminal") (find-bgprocess "eterm") will then inherit that value. Try it: (getenv "S") (find-sh0 "echo $S") * (eepitch-shell) * (eepitch-kill) * (eepitch-shell) echo $S Try also to create an external shell not from Emacs - for example, from your window manager's list of available applications, or from a text-mode login - and run "echo $S" there: you will notice that $S is unset. Old versions of eev used to require the user to run a script that would patch his rcfiles (i.e., ~/.bashrc, ~/.zshrc, etc) to set $S on startup. That turned out to be unreliable - it was better to teach people how to distinguish those processes that inherit $S from Emacs from those that don't, and let the experts patch their rcfiles by hand.
5. `browse-url' and friendsIf you place the point on the URL below http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html and run `M-x browse-url', Emacs will make an external browser visit the remote version of that URL. One (bad) way to visit the local copy of that URL is to modify the URL above by hand to adjust it to your value of $S, until you obtain something like this: file:///home/edrx/snarf/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html and then run `M-x browse-url' on it. One - rather primitive - way of visiting the local copy of that URL with find-file is to modify the URL by hand, replacing its "http://" with n "$S/http/", and then visit that file. For example: http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html (find-fline "$S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html") If you put the point on the URL and run `M-x brfl' on it you will visit the local copy "as a file", with `find-file' / `find-fline'. Visiting URLs - or their local copies - is something that we do so frequently that we need ways to do that with few keystrokes, which is why `brfl' has a short - and cryptic - name. The conventions are: "br" is the common prefix for all the browse-url-like functions in eev, "f" means to use `find-fline' (or, equivalently, `find-file'), "l" is an optional suffix meaning to use the local copy. The details on how to create these "brxxx functions" are here: (find-brxxx-intro)
6. `ee-flip-psne-ness'Converting a "non-psne URL" to a "psne URL" by hand, like this, https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/c/Coetzee99.pdf -> $S/https/tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/c/Coetzee99.pdf is error-prone and boring. Eev implements a command to do that, that works in both directions - it is called `ee-flip-psne-ness', and it searches for the next non-psne-or-psne URL and it "flips its psne-ness": it converts non-psne URLs to psne URLs and psne URLs to non-psne URLs. To try it you will have to run this: (define-key eev-mode-map "\M-s" 'ee-flip-psne-ness) because most people prefer to use the key `M-s' for their other things. Then try it by putting the cursor here and typing `M-s' four times. Watch the four psne-nesses below flip. https://tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/c/Coetzee99.pdf $S/https/tannerlectures.utah.edu/_resources/documents/a-to-z/c/Coetzee99.pdf http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html
7. A historical noteI wrote the first versions of "psne" in the late 1990s. At that point I was using a program called "snarf" to fetch files from the internet using FTP and HTTP, and I thought that it was natural to store the files downloaded with snarf into the directory "~/snarf/". Later I changed from snarf to wget, but I kept the directory as "~/snarf/". I tried using several languages for the part that converted a url into a directory. I still have the notes from my attempts to use Tcl and Awk to do that - but at one point I managed to write a script in Perl that was good enough and I stuck to that. The shell function that I could call as psne $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html and it would run the four steps in mkdir -p http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ cd http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/ wget $S/http/www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html echo 'http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html' >> ~/.psne.log was called "psne" because it used a Perl script to obtain the directory name, then it ran "snarf" (later "wget"), and it "echo"ed the URL to the end of a log file. So "p-sn-e".